Umananda Island, Assam – World’s smallest Inhabited River Island

Northeast India is famous for its amazing beauty, rich culture and natural resources. The Seven Sisters are full of national parks and famous tourist destinations, as well as religious sanctuaries and monasteries. Situated, not too far from the city of Guwahati in the state of Assam, you can find the tiny island of Umananda. This river island is encompassed by the majestic Brahmaputra river and is the smallest inhabited island in the world.

Umananda Island, Assam – The Smallest Inhabited River Island of the World

Umananda is also known as the peacock island, owing to its uncommon shape. It is said that Lord Shiva spent time here with his “ananda” or joy, Goddess Parvati as Bhayananda. The island is also known as “Bhasmachala” because of another legend stated in the Kalika Puran. It says that when Kamadeva tried to interrupt Lord Shiva’s meditation, while on the island, Lord Shiva burned him to ashes.

Bowing to the Brahmaputra

The Brahmaputra river brings huge amounts of flood waters into Assam during monsoons every year. Even with this fact, the island of Umananda has survived devastating floods because of the Umananda Temple, built to glorify Lord Shiva. The Umananda Devaloi, as the temple is named, was built under the famous Ahom King Gadadhar Singha in the 1690’s.

Bowing to the Brahmaputra for Umananda Island
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The Umananda Island houses a mountain known as the Bhasmakuta. It is stated in the Kalika Puran that the Uravashikunda is kept safe under the island and that Goddess Urvashi resides here. She brings “Amruta” or the sacred nectar for salvation. Hence, the island is also known as Urvashi Island.

Tourism Amidst The Brahmaputra

The beautiful Unananda Temple attracts a lot of tourists from Guwahati. A lot of tourists come to visit the Lord after the state has started regular ferries through its Inland Water Transport system. These motor ferries are locally known as “Bhutbhuti” which take almost 10 minutes to reach the island.

Umananda Island, Assam - World's smallest Inhabited River Island
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Many others come here to experience the serenity and tranquility of of the gigantic river that refrains itself from consuming the island.

Age Old Traditions

It is believed that when Lord Shiva carried the completely incinerated corpse of Maa Sati, he sprinkled the ashes on the blessed island of Umananda. Hence, the island and its temple, both stand significant.

Umananda Temple
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The main deity of the temple called Lord Umananda. To worship in the temple on a no mood day, when it falls on a Monday is the most auspicious one. The Shiva Chaturdashi is a festival which is held here annually.

Monkey Business

The isolated island of Umananada is famous for the rare Golden Langurs, which is a species of monkeys, which are specially found only here. It is sad that some tourists had left a couple of Golden Langurs here on the island, after which the species has survive the environment of the island. The rare sight of the arboreal primitives also attracts tourists and photographers all year round.

It is appreciated that the rich cultural heritage of the Umananda temple and the tiny river island has been able to preserve the old heritage. People from overseas come to seek blessings from the Lord on the world’s smallest inhabited island.

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Kongthong – A Village in Meghalaya where People Whistle to Communicate

Kongthong, a serene and peaceful village dwelling in the remote Khasi Hills in the Indian state of Meghalaya is unique for quite a reason. Imagine your name not being a word, but a tune or a whistle. Here, the caller hums a tune, which is a unique “name” that can only be understood by the villagers. This remarkable method of communication makes this isolated village renowned in the world.

Kongthong - A Village in Meghalaya where People Whistle to Communicate
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How did the whistling come up in Konthong Village ?

The Kongthong village is cut off and is isolated from the mainland, as it lies in the Eastern Khasi Hills in Meghalaya. The village is not connected with a proper roadway and can only be reached by trekking for upto 10 km. This isolated geography has led to an amazing system of singing and whistling for calling out names of people belonging to the village.

Call-out By Whistling

It is more of a matriarchal practice. The mother makes her babies used to this musical way to commute by humming specific tunes. When the babies grow up, this specific tune or “jingrawai lawbei” (lullaby) comes up to be their peculiar name. Though everyone in the village does have a usual name, they are called by the peculiar whistling sound by the mothers all the time. Hence, the kids respond spontaneously. The call-out varies from kid to kid. So, in a family, every child would be called out in a different tune.

The Whistling Tradition

The Whistling Tradition of Konthong
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There are nearly 500 people living in the little hamlet of Kongthong and follow the traditional religion of Seng Khasi. The people here are shy and do not like mixing up with the outside world. They cultivate a few crops and walk down for long trips to sell their crops in the markets. While on their way back, they buy all essential commodities that are required by the whole village for an entire week.

Different Stages to Sing

There are two commonly known stages in which the whistling and singing out names is established for an individual. First stage begins as a baby and remains a traditional way to communicate within the family.

The second stage is generally used by grown up men in the village who create different songs and hums to call out men and women.The songs are also used by young boys to express feelings.

Uniqueness Throughout the World

The astonishing tradition of calling out names and communicating through hums and whistles has attracted a lot of scholars from foreign lands to the village. Many people from Germany, America and Japan come here to understand the code of communication to a deeper extent.

Khasi Folklore

Many Khasi folktales are narrated about how a man when struggling with some goons climbed on a tree. He whistled the names of his friends to come and rescue him, without letting the goons have the slightest idea.

To Sum It Up

The spectacular practice of using musical tunes and whistles as names reflect the rich culture of the forefathers of the Kongthong village. The tradition was tough enough to stand harsh times and stays alive in the peaceful village of Kongthong.

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 ‘Dialogue in the Dark’ – This Hyderabad Restaurant serves meals in Complete Darkness!

Whenever you come across a person with some disability you term him/her as disabled or may be differently abled. It is just a terminology for some, just another column to be filled with a “not applicable” answer. Ever thought or even felt what and how they are “abled”? A lot of you must have, while watching a movie or a video clip involving these differently abled individuals or may be read a soul touching the story. If you really want to feel how and what are the abilities these special individuals carry you must visit the – 5th Floor, of the Inorbit Mall, Madhapur, Hyderabad. The ACE Experiences Asia Private Limited has all of them stored at the – “Dialogue in the Dark”!

Dialogue in the Dark, Hyderabad
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Dialogue in the Dark – A restaurant that serves meals in pitch Darkness

This unique eating joint is conceptualized not just to have a theme based restaurant but also to make you realize about your inner potentials. You get the experience of eating your meal in complete darkness. You have to place your choice of food before enter the main seating area. Once you have done that you are asked to deposit all electric or non-electric gadgets or things which probably can emit any kind of light. Then you enter the seating area, not alone, with the help of a guide. The same is required as the inside is completely dark, absolute pitch dark.

Your assistance, to your surprise, is people who are blind and have never seen light in their life. They will not only guide you to your seat but will also stay with you throughout instructing and helping you while you dine. You have to eat your meal in complete dark, depending only on the touch and feel by your fingers and hand. You will not even listen to any noise, except for a light music from the background. To give you company the guide will keep chatting with you.

Educating the Society

With more than twenty years of corporate experience under his belt, SV Krishnan and Sudha Krishnan (founder and co-founder) founded ACE Experience Pvt.Ltd with the vision to bring awareness, make the society sensitive towards the potential, flair, and talent of disabled individuals. They also had conceptualized themes and entertainment medium where they can hire disabled and bring them into the mainstream.

Dialogue in the Dark, Inorbit Mall, Hyderabad
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The mission was to use Art (A), Culture (C), and Entertainment (E) to educate people on the differently-abled so that it brings a positive impact on the society. The concept of “Taste of Darkness” is one of the three different experiences conceptualized. The other two, which are equally powerful and exhilarating experiences, are – “Exhibition Tour” and “Dialogue Business Workshops”.

Salute the Capacity

The experience of “Dialogue in Dark” has been experienced by more than 3 lakh visitors in Hyderabad and counting. This distinctive encounter will help you understand your own self, it brings out your hidden talents and how you can cope up with the challenges of life if thrown at you. You come out of the restaurant after completing your meal and that is the answer, what all concealed potential you have inside. It also brings in that feeling in you for the differently abled where you don’t pity them but respect and salute them!

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 ‘Kaidi Kitchen’ – A Restaurant in Chennai based on Prison Theme

Ever enjoyed your meal in a Jail ? You must have experienced or heard about a jail only in movies and books. Most of you must not experience a real jail, and of course, you never would like to. But, given a chance to visit and dine in a jail would definitely be an overwhelming experience for sure. To your surprise, you can do this any number of times you wish to, only you have to be in Chennai. The marketplace at Mylapore, Chennai has this theme based restaurant which provides you the opportunity of dining inside a jail with the precise environment.

Kaidi Kitchen
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Theme Restaurant – Kaidi Kitchen

Three friends – Rohit Ojha, Ankit Madhogaria and Saurav Aggarwal in the year 2012, with a vision that fine-dining is an art, opened this restaurant which served Mexican, Mongolian, Italian, and North Indian cuisine. They never had anything as a theme in their mind, but their belief that dining should be imprisonment, mainly satisfaction they gave the restaurant the theme of a “Jail”, and that’s the birth of “Kaidi Kitchen”.

Inspectors taking the Orders

The moment you reach the main entrance of the restaurant a big jail gate will welcome you.  The interiors of the pure vegetarian dining place are designed as a jail, with eight prison cells, though the cells are air-conditioned. The 8000sq Ft area has seating arrangements inside these cells and the customers who just want to watch people dine inside can sit outside the cells on the available seats. The cells have even huge locks just there are at any jail. The cells have warning “Red Lights” as can be seen in a jail. The walls of the cells and even the outside are designed neatly just like a jail, in square blocks of bricks. You can also find hand-cuffs displayed on cells.

Kaidi Kitchen Chennai
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The order is taken by waiters dressed as Police Inspectors, wearing a complete police uniform, including the cap. The serving staff is dressed as jail prisoners. To present you, a complete feel of a jail, the lights inside are kept dim. The best part is you get pleased by the politely speaking inspector asking you for order and equally sober and well-mannered prisoner serving you.

Multi-Cuisine Pure Vegetarian Restaurant

It is just not the theme will amuse you, but the tantalizing Italian, Mexican cuisine will satisfy your savory. The food served here is palatable, exotic, and exquisite. They ensure that you get the best of dining and experience at the same time.

Kaidi Kitchen - A Restaurant in Chennai based on Prison Theme

The dining at Kaidi Kitchen can be an exciting and knowledgeable encounter for your kids when they get the feel of a jail; probably that is the aim of the founders also. The stupendous response from local Tamil customers visiting the restaurant gave the three friends to further expand their theme to other major cities and in line with that, they have opened their second one at Kolkata. You may soon find one in your own city as the three musketeers are exploring the franchise model.

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The famous Diamond Crossing of Nagpur

Indian Railways is the fourth largest railway network in the world with 119,630 km of rail track and 7216 stations (figures by the end of 2015-16). It employs more than 1.331 million employees and is the eighth biggest employer in the world. Spectacularly the Indian Railways run twenty-six different types of trains and on an average runs 13,313 passenger trains daily. If these figures are mind blowing for you than there are numerous others which may in turn surprise you and one such interesting fact is the “Diamond Crossing”.

The Unique Diamond Crossing of Nagpur

Diamond Crossing Nagpur
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Going by the railway terminology when two railway lines cross each other, not necessarily at right angles, they form a “diamond” shape at the crossing point. This crossing point is also known as the “Diamond Crossing”. Across the length and breadth of the wide network of Indian Railways, this is physical phenomenon is very unusual and since the British era this rarest of the rare place was declared to be present at – Nagpur Railway Station. Rather the diamond crossing of Nagpur is actually a “Double Diamond Crossing” and lines from north, south, east and west cross at this juncture.

Attributes of Diamond Crossing, Nagpur

Since the British times, Nagpur Railway Station was termed as the “Zero-mile” marker as they considered Nagpur to be the geographical center of the undivided Indian map. Now that makes a beautiful coincidence that just at the centre of the country there lay railway tracks which form a double diamond crossing comprising of two sets of tracks from each side.

Nagpur is the precise point where the track from North to South and east to west India cross. Another very interesting fact is that the north to south track is the main line which connects Udhampur, geographically one end of Northern India, to Kanyakumari, the terminating point of India at South. Similarly, the east to west line track is the main line which connects Howrah station, east of India, to Mumbai, which is the extreme end of West.

Twist in the Tale

Though the fact that Nagpur Diamond Crossing exists cannot be denied there are certain facts which need to be mentioned so that in the case of any conflict things can be understood in the light of true facts. The fact that the third track going towards south actually bifurcates only after a distance of 80 km from Nagpur cannot be denied. Secondly, the fourth track forming the double diamond is actually a service branch line from Nagpur Freight Yard.

Diamond Crossing of Nagpur
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The popularity of the location and the phenomenon cannot be contradicted and so many surprising facts do not exist in any other location across India. Even across the world, the presences of Diamond Crossings are rare and wherever they exist they get a similar popularity and celebrations.  Well, the geographic positioning will give the city one of the biggest benefits and soon the city of Nagpur will also be known for being the nation’s biggest “Logistics Hub”.

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The Hanging Pillar of Lepakshi Temple

India has diverse culture, rich traditions, vast history and elaborate architecture. It also has varied religion which spread the message of brotherhood, equality, and spirituality. Indian history and religion have evidences of co-relation in its temple, forts and pre-historic colonies. The Indian epics can be traced in the form of remains in such places and the stories seem to be true and Godly. One of the very famous Hindu epics – Ramayana, have its footprints down south in the district of Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, known as – Lepakshi.

Lepakshi Temple – Origin from Ramayana

The Epic of Ramayana describes Sita, wife of Rama, being abducted by the king of Lanka- Ravana and being taken away by the aerial route. Bird – Jatayu comes to rescue Sita but gets wounded by the sword of Ravana and falls on a hill. Rama, in search of Sita, meets Jatayu and speaks to Jatayu with first words “Le Pakshi” meaning “Arise Bird”. Since then this place is named as “Lepakshi”. Lepakshi is around 120 kms from Bangalore and just 15 kms from Hindupur. It’s a small village with both historical and architectural importance.

Lepakshi Temple
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During the Vijayanagara King’s rule between 1336- 1646, a temple dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu and Veerabhadra was constructed here, designed by two brothers- Viranna and Virupanna. This temple was known as the “Veerabhadra Temple” now also known as the “Lepakshi Temple”. The temple is constructed in a Vijayanagara architectural style and has many astonishing features in it.

The Hanging Pillar

One of the halls of the temple known as the “Dance Hall” has 70 pillars on which the total weight of the temple is kept. All the pillars have been erected from bottom to top except one which is been constructed from top to bottom and is not complete also. This pillar does not touch the floor of the temple and hangs just few centimeters above the ground. Indian scientist researched on it and declared that this marvel did not happen by mistake, it is the proof of the architectural marvel of those times which is matchless even today.

Lepakshi Temple Hanging Pillar
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A British engineer tried his level best to uncover the mystery of the pillar but could not do so as moving that pillar disturbed the alignment of all other pillars in the temple. That also proves that this pillar, though hanging, is the main pillar of the temple. Such is the brilliance of the architectures of those times, which even today’s so called technologically sound engineers cannot design such a spectacle.

Hanging Pillar of Lepakshi Temple
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Everyday thousands of pilgrims and tourists visit this temple to witness the phenomenon of passing thin sheet of paper or garment under this hanging pillar. When they do it themselves, the glow of surprise in their eyes and the shocking expression on the face itself prove that this is the masterpiece of Indian Architecture.  It is your duty to preserve the heritage and culture of our country and you must pass on this information to the next generation in the form of visit, books, or any other medium.

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The Mysterious Hide-and-Seek Beach of Chandipur, Orissa

Mother Nature’s sorcery is unmatchable, and her spell cannot be copied irrespective of the scientific developments done by mankind. That’s not a thought rather that’s a challenge she throws at you whenever you try to interfere in her boundaries. But at the same, she is compassionate and leaves amazing and astonishing things, and occurrence that is truly spellbound, and that’s her beauty. One such place in the Indian state of Orissa where she plays a game of hide-and-seek with you daily is Chandipur. It is another coincidence that Chandipur is also the DRDO Integrated Test Range where latest missile technologies are tested. Which means both Nature and Technology exists here at the same place.

Camouflaging by Nature – Chandipur Beach

Chandipur is around 200 kms from Bhubaneswar and just 10 kms from the city of Balasore. The beach here is awesome and sensational, with its distinctive feature of receding and moving back to the level of up to 5 kms. This phenomenon happens every day at least twice a day.

Hide-and-Seek Beach of Chandipur, Orissa
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Mother Nature plays with you and during the “EBB” tides the sea retreats back and you can actually walk on the sea when this happens. One gets the opportunity of watching the sea moving back. When the “High tides” comes, the sea returns and fills the empty beach once again with sea water. This way you watch a beach disappear and reappear during the day.

The Tides

The specific timings of the tides, which actually depend on the movement of the moon, allow you to enjoy the moment with more intimacy. You can actually walk with the sea when it retreats back slowly and enters the seabed, up to a distance of 5 kms. And then you can come back with the gentle sea waves when it returns. You can feel the soft sand of the seabed with your feet and be that close to Mother Nature.

Hide and Seek Beach Chandipur
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Due to this natural phenomenon, the biodiversity has been enriched and a lot of sea animals thrive here. It is quite common to get the glimpses of the horseshoe crab, or a red crab crawling openly on the beach. Though tourists are not very acquainted with the beach but locals visit this place quite often. If you are a tourist then the best place to visit the beach is between November and March. And don’t get shocked to find any beach when you reach the spot, just get in the Seabed immediately, because the sea might come back very soon. You will love the Seafood here, especially if you are a fish lover.

hide and seek beach chandipur odisha
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It is quite remarkable that at one side due to natural tides the beach automatically disappears and reappears at Chandipur and at the same time Chandipur is the place where disaster creating weapons get tested by mankind. This is high time mankind must introspect and should focus more on natural things and Mother Nature’s creations and stop creating, weird, catastrophic and harmful things and equipment of its own.

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Mother’s Market – A 500 years old ‘Women Only’ Market in Imphal, Manipur

In our society, be it in India or in any other country, even in today’s technically and scientifically developed ecosystem has forced the fairer sex to fight for her basic rights due to “Gender Biases”. Women do not get treated equally and there is always the domination of the male members of the society. At times and places, this even crosses the limits of cruelty and in humanness. Though a lot of work and social awareness has resulted in attaining “Women Empowerment”, a lot is still pending to be achieved. Never the less there are examples in pockets which compel us to think differently. These cases raise the question – Is the fight really? Why not follow this and immediately reach the desired goal of “Women Empowerment”?

Ima Keithal – Pride of Manipur 

The state capital of Manipur – Imphal has something which is remarkable and will show you that gender bias is just a thought and one must learn from the system which is here since last 500 years. The heart of the city has a trading centre – also known as the “Khawairamband Bazaar” or the “Ima Keithal” literary meaning – Mother’s Market.

Ima Keithal - Pride of Manipur
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This ever busy market has around 5000 traders, who start their day early in the morning, come well dressed in their traditional attire of – ‘Phaneks’/ ‘Sarongs’ and ‘Innaphis’/ ‘ shawls’. The surroundings start buzzing with their chit-chats and laughs and the bargaining between the buyer and the seller starts. What is unique in all this is all the 5000 traders are “FEMALES”.

Largest All-ladies Market in Asia – Chronicle

Believed to be the largest market, where the traders are only females, in India has an exceptionally momentous history. Accepted as the largest all-women market, not only in India but also in Asia and probably in the world, this market has its origin way back from the 16th Century. Then, an old forced labour system of Manipur, known as the “Lallup-Kaba” made the males in the family of Meitei community work away from their homes and the ladies used to work and run their families by selling produce, cultivated in their fields, in local markets. This became a practice, then tradition and then a way of life. Numerous such markets were created with the biggest being – Ima Keithal in Imphal.

Ima Keithal
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Even during the British Ruling in India, this market played a critical role in terms of a place to share critical information, ideas, socio-political happenings, and exchange of thoughts on economic policies. The ladies fought back the Britishers against their anti-national economic policies in the form of a movement named – “Nupi Lan”.

List of Merchandise

The females in the market sell everything from this market starting from clothes, handicrafts, utensils, kitchenware, dry fish and the famous “Morok Chilli”. The females sell their products here with ease and they even have a union where they can afford to take a loan, to buy their required product for trading and then repay the union.

Ima Keithal - Mother's Market
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Clearly, an example of “Women Empowerment” at its highest levels and must be replicated across the societies of the world.

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Shetpal – The Snake Village of India

Since ages in India, Snakes, especially the “Cobra” has been worshiped and there are tales of the reptile in the form of both God and devil. You find references of snakes as God whenever you talk of “Lord Shiva”. You find Lord Krishna’s reference in killing the “Kalia Naag”, which was a snake with multiple heads. The famous Indian Epic Ramayana has a reference of a “Naag Lok”, meaning a place where all the snakes live. People worship the snakes and take blessings so much so that in India there is a festival which is dedicated to snakes called – Nag Panchami.

Shetpal – India’s Land of Snakes

Whatever you hear in terms of worshiping snakes is all occasional but imagine you doing the worshiping every day that also with the snakes always with you in real. Shocking but true, that’s what happens in the remote village of Shetpal, which is located at the Mohol Taluka of Sholapur District, Maharashtra.  This village with a very small population of 2650 plus, is about 200 kms away from Pune. The origin of the practice of worshiping snakes, here in this village is unknown, but still, people have a special place for these reptiles in their hearts and houses.

Shetpal - India's Land of Snakes
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The belief is so strong here in this village that even the smallest of families in the area has a specific, designated place in the house where the snake may come and rest.  Each house has this “Devasthan” especially meant for the snake/ cobra to visit and take rest and bless the family. The designated place is normally in a hollow space on the ceiling. The cobras roam around in the village very freely and amazingly nobody screams, shouts, or has any fear for them.

Kids of the village sometimes play with the cobra. People, here in Shetpal not only worship these cobras but also love them. They fearlessly move along with them and it is a daily routine that snakes are found in the rooms of the house. The snakes even enter the classrooms of the schools and the children, without any terror or any distress stay where they are. Villagers if construct a new house in the village, make sure that the “Devasthan” is built properly, spacious enough for the snake to rest comfortably.

Shetpal - India's Village of Snakes
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A question immediately hits the mind that if at the entire snakes move around freely and people allow this to happen, then there must be a lot of snake bite cases in the village. The astonishing fact is till date not even a single case of snake bite has been reported.

The famous Image of India as the country of “Snake Charmers” comes to in the mind the moment such extraordinary fact comes to light. The fact of the matter may be scientifically described. The presence of so many snakes at one place can be due to the dry weather conditions and the free habitation along with humans may be because both of them respect each other and do not interfere in anybody’s lifestyles.

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Bhaini Sahib Village, Ludhiana – Music Village of India

At the time when people’s interest from classical music was declining a small village in Punjab was setting examples for India. Bhaini Sahib, a small sleepy village near Ludhiana, where young kids grab their music instruments and run to the room where there are portraits of great musicians, where they learn different musical instruments like tabla, dilruba, sitar, and sarod, etc. These kids are taught to listen to natural sounds of peacocks dancing in the rain, where they can accompany each other including other musical instruments and create their own music. This village might be another small village in Punjab, but has an exceptional talent filled. Bhaini Sahib also known as Bhaini Ala is located approximately 25 kilometres away from east of Ludhiana on the famous Ludhiana-Chandigarh highway and the village got its name Bhaini Sahib due to its association with the Sikh religious places.

Bhaini Sahib – India’s Music Village 

It has been more than a 100 years now, that every child that is born in this village is taught the art of Indian classical music, whichever career they choose after growing up but music always runs on a parallel track in their life. A vocalist that teaches children says that if you learn music as a child, you end up becoming better human beings. A few have chosen music as their profession and have become popular in their areas of music.

Bhaini Sahib Village
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Music has always been important in the Sikh tradition, where the verses of the holy Granth Sahib are set in 31 ragas – that start with Shri and end with Jaijawanti. The script is based on various teachings of Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs and other saints. Namdhari leader – SatguruPratap Singh, started the tradition of teaching music in the village and he himself was a single and played dilruba. Moreover, he natured the music in Bhaini Sahib that is still touching lives of so many children. The elders in the village encouraged the young generation to pursue music as a career when this profession used to be a respectable one in India.

Bhaini Sahib - Music Village of India
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Perpetuity and excellence have both been a reason behind the learning. Children get to learn from the great masters so that they can teach the coming generation and it so goes on. As an initiative, there is a hostel opened up in central Mumbai where any child willing to learn music can join the Allah Rakha academy and learn for free with some great people who have to learn music at the Bhaini Sahib. A few names like Kirpal Singh who became a banker but returned to his village to teach the art of music and he himself is one of the top taar-shehnai players in the world. Another famous person who learned music from this village is Sukhwinder Singh and plays table and Jodi-pakhawaj – the classical drum and also teacher various students. In Bhaini Sahib village, music is just not believed to be an art but it is also their way of life.

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